The significant advances in transportation and logistics have greatly improved people’s lives and influenced the performance of all economic sectors. Nevertheless, it can also produce negative impacts. In fact, vehicle traffic contributes to congestion, pollution, and accidents. Besides, the transportation of highly toxic materials poses a serious safety risk to humans or to environment. The transportation problem is usually modeled as a vehicle routing problem (VRP). Considering the dynamic nature of the real-world problem, static variants of VRP could not be appropriate since the information are subject to change over time and have to be taken into account by the decision maker. In this thesis, we are particularly interested to design safe and healthy transportation systems in dynamic situations in order to protect human being and environment.
First, we study the problem of transporting Haz-Mat in a dynamic environment. The objectives are the minimization of the transport costs and risk related to the transport of Haz-Mat.
The second contribution of this thesis deals with the minimization of the transportation cost and the carbon dioxide emission caused by the vehicles while servicing a set of customers that occurred over time.
Finally, we explore waste collection in hospitals. This is an important and complex problem taking into account the generated hazardous health care waste (HCW). Thus, we propose a method for optimizing the collections of these wastes by separating the non-hazardous wastes from the hazardous wastes. Besides, we study the dynamic version of this problem. As a practical case, we have used this approach to collect the HCW from a set of hospitals in the region of Tunis.