The technological advances, due to the advent of the new information and communication technologies have given rise to the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) concept. The objectives of such applications are to provide effective solutions to deal with the daily problems of congestion. The importance as well as the socio-economic challenges raised by congestion requires the introduction of innovative solutions based on the latest advances in the automatic control field. The works presented in this thesis lie in the frame of ITS and treat the problems of the freeway and Urban Express Routes (UER) control. Among the used control techniques, our works focus mainly on the isolated ramp metering. The objective of this control measurement is to act on the on-ramp flow, through traffic lights, in order to keep the traffic density on the mainstream section around a critical threshold allowing then an optimal use of the freeway or UER infrastructures. The proposed algorithm rests on the jointly use of differential flatness and high order sliding mode control (HOSMC) concept. The main characteristic of the differential flatness lies in its ability to provide a trajectory generation, without integration of any differential equation of the studied model. On the other hand, the advantage of HOSMC is to allow a robust trajectory tracking even in the case of the presence of uncertainties and disturbances which are typical to traffic systems. The relevance of the proposed approach is validated through a set of numerical simulations using real-data from a part of the A6 freeway from Paris ring. In addition, the validation step has been enriched by the performance evaluation based on a set of criteria commonly used by the freeway practitioners. The obtained results paves the way to several perspectives in order to improve the proposed control approach and its generalization for more complex freeway networks.